Encyclopedia - Small Grains

Use the Search and Filter options to help select only the crops, types of disease, and timing of disease you are interested in from the list below. Only articles meeting your chosen criteria will be shown. These articles contain information and images for identification and basic management of crop diseases.

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Root-Knot Nematode of Wheat

Root-knot nematodes are one of the most destructive plant-parasitic nematodes. The root-knot nematode commonly produces small, curved or horseshoe shaped-galls near root tips. Typically, galls are larger and easier to recognize toward the end of the growing season. Severely infected plants are often st... Read More

Root-Lesion Nematode of Wheat

Root-lesion nematode is found in most wheat production areas in the U.S. and Canada. It has a wide host range and can be very destructive in wheat. Symptoms include chlorosis of lower leaves, stunting, fewer tillers, and delayed plant growth. The root mass is reduced as nematodes degrade roots and reduce branching. Roots tend to turn brown, and oth... Read More

Septoria tritici Blotch of Wheat

Septoria tritici blotch is a common disease of wheat, often occurring alongside other foliar diseases. It is also known as Septoria leaf spot. Elliptical, tan-brown lesions that often have yellowish halos first appear on seedling leaves. Lesion centers die and dark fruiting bodies are produced, giving the lesion a characteristi... Read More

Sharp Eyespot of Wheat

Sharp eyespot, also called spring blight, infects wheat in temperate regions of the U.S. Tan, lens-shaped lesions with dark borders initially appear on the outer leaf sheath of lower stems, often between the crown and third node. Mature lesions eventually turn dark brown. Lesions result in formation of a hole in leaf sheaths. White fu... Read More

Snow Molds of Wheat

Snow molds occur primarily where snowfall accumulates and are caused by several pathogens. Symptoms are typically patchy and appear after snow melts in spring. Severe infection can damage the growing point, causing plant death. With pink snow mold, infected po... Read More

Stagonospora Leaf and Glume Blotch of Wheat

Stagonospora leaf and glume blotch is very common in the U.S. and Canada and is often found with Septoria leaf spot. The leaf blotch phase of this disease can lead to a head infection phase, called glume blotch. Seed may also be infected. When infected seed is planted,... Read More

Stem Rust of Wheat

Stem rust of wheat, also known as black rust, is a problematic disease worldwide. A federal program and breeding efforts have kept the disease in check in the U.S. However, new variants of the stem rust pathogen virulent on many resistance genes currently used in the U.S. has been observed in Af... Read More

Stripe Rust of Wheat

Stripe rust can occur anywhere in the U.S. and Canada, causing substantial yield losses when conditions are favorable. It is also known as yellow rust. Initially, symptoms are yellowish flecks on leaves. On susceptible varieties, pustules containing yellow-orange spores erupt from leaves. Pustules are clustered on seedling leaves, while pu... Read More

Take-All of Wheat

Take-all of wheat occurs in temperate climates and can have a devastating effect. Plants with take-all initially have mild chlorosis, are stunted, and have poor tiller development. Around heading (FGS 10.5), patches of uneven, prematurely ripened wheat with white heads appear. Infected plants may eventually lodge. Roots are blac... Read More

Tan Spot of Wheat

Tan spot is an economically important disease occurring anywhere wheat is grown in the U.S. and Canada. It is also called yellow leaf spot. In susceptible wheat varieties, tan spot initially appears as small, brown spots on leaves. Spots enlarge and develop tan necrotic spots with a yellow halo. A pinhead size black spot may be... Read More

Wheat Streak Mosaic, High Plains Disease, and Triticum Mosaic of Wheat

Wheat streak mosaic, High plains disease, and Triticum mosaic are part of a virus disease complex found in most wheat growing regions of the U.S. and into Canada. These diseases are caused by Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), High plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV), and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), respectively. Co-infection... Read More