Small Grains


Aster Yellows of Wheat

Aster yellows is caused by a phytoplasma spread by leafhoppers during feeding. Leafhopper feeding can cause white flecking or stippling on leaves. When the plant is infected, leaves become yellowish and progressively turn red-brown or purple, usually starting at the tips. Discoloration typically occurs as streaks. Plants may be stunted and... Read More

Bacterial Leaf Blight of Wheat

Bacterial leaf blight is not of major economic importance in wheat. After prolonged periods of high humidity, water-soaked spots develop on flag leaves and below on infected plants. Affected areas can range from small flecks to large blotches on leaves. Once humidity decreases, spots will turn gray/green, become tan and... Read More

Bacterial Streak and Black Chaff of Wheat

Bacterial streak appears first as small water-soaked lesions that rapidly develop into long, thin, tan-brown, water-soaked lesions, confined between the leaf veins. Lesions may appear translucent when backlit, especially when leaves are wet. Unless leaves remain wet or there is high humidity, the water-soaked... Read More

Barley Yellow Dwarf of Wheat

Barley yellow dwarf is widespread throughout the U.S. and Canada and can affect a variety of cereal crops. It is caused by multiple viruses. Symptoms of barley yellow dwarf (BYD) include stunting; yellow, red, and/or purple discoloration of leaves (particularly the flag leaf); and tip burn. Leaves can be distorted and roots underdeveloped. S... Read More

Black Head Molds of Wheat

The various fungi that cause black head mold primarily live on dead plant tissue and are typically only a problem when wheat dies prematurely. Also known as sooty head molds, black head molds appear dirty and come in a variety of colors (black, white, pink, or green) depending on the causal fungi. Growing on dead leaves, stems, and heads, these fungi are of most concern w... Read More

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