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Soybean Disease Loss Estimates 2015

Soybean Disease Management

Soybean Disease Loss Estimates From the United States and Ontario, Canada — 2015

CPN-1018-15-W — published April 2017

 

 

Each year, soybean diseases reduce yield in the United States and Ontario, Canada. Diseases of importance vary on an annual basis, and diseases that affect yield are based on many factors, including environment, crop production practices, as well as variety selection and susceptibility to disease.

This publication provides the annual estimates for soybean losses due to plant diseases and pathogens for the major soybean-producing states in the United States and Ontario, Canada. Extension, university, USDA plant pathologists, and soybean specialists from each state and Ontario provided the estimates used in this report. These reports accounted for 3.9 billion bushels (99.6 percent) of the total soybean produced in the United States and Ontario in 2015. This publication includes seedling blights, foliar diseases, stem diseases, nematodes, and seed diseases in the estimated losses. It is important to note that the methods for estimating disease loss vary by state and province. The estimates may be based on disease surveys; feedback from university, extension, industry, and farmer representatives; and personal experience with disease losses.

For this publication, the authors determined disease loss values based on yield before estimated losses for each state or province:
bushels harvested/[(100 - percent estimated disease loss) ÷ 100]
The authors then formulated total bushels lost per disease (percent loss × yield before estimated losses) for each state.

2015 Conditions and Production


The United States produced more than 3.93 billion bushels of soybean in 2015, and many areas reported record yield. Overall, temperatures were mild, and 2015 marked the 19th consecutive year that the average temperature was greater than the 20th century average. Much of the central and southeastern United States had above-average precipitation.

In Ontario, the 2015 growing season overall was moderate and near normal in terms of temperature and rainfall. The total soybean production in Ontario for 2015 was 132,489,900 bushels.

2015 Disease Losses

In all, 11.7 percent of the total estimated soybean bushels in 2015 were lost due to disease in the top 28 soybean-producing states, and 10.4 percent of the total estimated soybean bushels in 2015 were lost due to disease in Ontario, Canada. Table 1 provides yield loss estimates for all diseases.

 

 


Diseases in the Northern United States

 

A total of 81.6 percent of the estimated yield losses for 2015 occurred in northern U.S. states. Disease losses in the northern states greatly influence the overall importance of various diseases across the United States, because the majority (78 percent) of soybean production occurs in these states.

Soybean cyst nematode caused the greatest estimated yield losses in the northern states, with more than 95 million bushels lost (Table 2), which is almost 25 percent of the total amount of disease-related losses. Wet conditions at planting across most of the Midwest contributed to increased loss from soilborne diseases such as seedling diseases and sudden death syndrome.


 

Diseases in Southern States

In southern states, soybean cyst nematode and root-knot nematode were particularly damaging (Table 3). High relative humidity and warm temperatures contributed to the prevalence of frogeye leaf spot.
 

 

Summary

Environmental conditions varied across the United States and Ontario in 2015, which affected the presence and impact of many diseases. Wet conditions during planting across the Midwest likely influenced the prevalence of seedling and stem diseases observed. See Find Out More (page 4) for disease loss estimates for previous years.

 

Disclaimer

The yield losses estimated in this publication were provided by members of the North Central Research and Extension Activity (NCERA) 137 Soybean Disease Committee and the Southern Soybean Disease Workers. This information is only a guide. The values in this publication are estimates and are not intended to be used as exact measurements of soybean yield losses due to diseases. The most appropriate means available were used to estimate disease losses and no liability resulting from the use of these estimates is assumed.

Reference to products in this publication is not intended to be an endorsement to the exclusion of others that may be similar. Individuals using such products assume responsibility for their use in accordance with current directions of the manufacturer.

 

 Authors

Carl Bradley.....................University of Kentucky
Tom Allen................Mississippi State University
Martin Chilvers..........Michigan State University
Loren Giesler..................University of Nebraska
Kelsey Mehl....................University of Kentucky
Daren Mueller..................Iowa State University
Albert Tenuta..Ontario Ministry of Agriculture,
Food and Rural Affairs
Adam Sisson....................Iowa State University
Kiersten Wise.......................Purdue University

Contributors

The following individuals contributed to this publication: 

Alabama...............................................................Ed Sikora
Arkansas...............................Terry Spurlock, Travis Faske
Delaware...............................................Nathan Kleczewski
Florida..............................................................Nick Dufault
Georgia..........................................................Bob Kemerait
Illinois.......Glen Hartman, Jason Bond, and Carl Bradley
Indiana...........................................................Kiersten Wise
Iowa...............................................................Daren Mueller
Kansas.............................................................Doug Jardine
Kentucky...........................................................Carl Bradley
Louisiana..Charlie Overstreet, Trey Price, and Clayton Hollier
Maryland...............................................Nathan Kleczewski
Michigan........................Marty Chilvers and Fred Warner
Minnesota........................Dean Malvick and James Kurle
Mississippi..........................................................Tom Allen
Missouri...........................................................Bill Weibold
Nebraska......................................................Loren Giesler
North Carolina............................................Steve Koennig
North Dakota.................Sam Markell and Berlin Nelson
Ohio...........................................................Anne Dorrance
Oklahoma.................................................John Damicone
Ontario, Canada.........................................Albert Tenuta
Pennsylvania..............................................Alyssa Collins
South Carolina.............................................John Mueller
South Dakota..Emmanuel Byamukama and Connie Tande
Tennessee..................................................Heather Kelly
Texas.............................................................Tom Isakeit
Virginia.........................................................Hillary Mehl
Wisconsin..................................................Damon Smith

 

Find Out More

This publication was developed by the Crop Protection Network (CPN), a multi-state and international collaboration of university and provincial extension specialists and public and private professionals who provide unbiased, research-based information to farmers and agricultural personnel. Our goal is to communicate relevant information that will help professionals identify and manage field crop diseases.

Dr. J. Allen Wrather (University of Missouri) and Dr. Stephen Koenning (North Carolina State University) began this project in 1996 with the support of the United Soybean Board. Their previous reports are listed below. In addition, you can access estimates from previous years at extension.cropsciences.illinois.edu/fieldcrops/diseases/yield_reductions.php.

Koenning, S. R., and Wrather, J. A. 2010. Suppression of soybean yield potential in the continental United States by plant diseases from 2006 to 2009. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2010-122-01-RS.

Wrather, J. A., and Koenning, S. R. 2006. Estimates of disease effects on soybean yields in the United States 2003 to 2005. Journal of Nematology 38:173-180.

Wrather, J. A., Koenning, S. R., and Anderson, T. R. 2003. Effect of diseases on soybean yields in the United States and Ontario (1999 to 2002). Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2003-0325-01-RV.

Wrather, J. A., Stienstra, W. C., and Koenning, S. R. 2001. Soybean disease loss estimates for the United States from 1996 to 1998. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 23:122-131.

Acknowledgements

In addition to support from the United Soybean Board, this project was funded in part through Growing Forward 2 (GF2), a federal-provincial territorial initiative. The Agricultural Adaptation Council assists in the delivery of GF2 in Ontario. The authors thank the United Soybean Board and Grain Farmers of Ontario for their support. Design and production by Purdue Agricultural Communication.

 
NCERA-137 and SSDW

Members of the NCERA-137 and SSDW groups are university and extension scientists from institutions that include: University of Arkansas, Auburn University, University of Florida, University of Georgia, University of Illinois, Iowa State University, Kansas State University, University of Kentucky, Louisiana State University, Michigan State University, University of Minnesota, Mississippi State University, University of Missouri, University of Nebraska, North Carolina State University, North Dakota State University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Purdue University, South Dakota State University, University of Tennessee, Texas A&M University, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs


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